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Posted by / 22-May-2020 22:17

Propofol beyond use dating

Genetic mutations may predispose patients to develop Parkinson’s disease if combined with other gene mutations or environmental factors.71 Parkinson’s disease is characterized by the progressive death of selected, but heterogeneous, populations of neurones, including those dopaminergic neurones of the pars compacta of the substantia nigra.The precise mechanisms responsible for cell death are largely unknown and may be due to mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, the actions of excitotoxins with excess nitric oxide formation, deficient neurotrophic support, or immune mechanisms.57 Although still controversial, the final common pathway appears to be the induction of apoptosis in nigral dopaminergic neurones.1353Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative metabolism are major components of many current theories in Parkinson’s disease.Parkinson’s disease is an increasingly common disease of elderly patients who present a particular anaesthetic challenge.This review explores the epidemiology, aetiology, pathogenesis, and pathophysiology of the condition, particularly the possible role of genetic factors.

Parkinson’s disease occurs world wide, affecting all ethnic groups, with a very slight male preponderance.139 The prevalence increases exponentially between 65 and 90 yr; approximately 0.3% of the general population and 3% of people over 65 yr have it.76 The EUROPARKINSON study found an overall prevalence of 2.3% for parkinsonism and 1.6% for Parkinson’s disease in a survey of 14 636 participants aged over 65 yr in five European countries.109 As many as 24% of the subjects with Parkinson’s disease were newly diagnosed at the time of the study.

The lowest reported incidence is among Asians and African blacks and the highest is amongst whites.

The disease was first formally described during the Industrial Revolution, suggesting that exogenous toxins may have a causative role, but descriptions of conditions resembling Parkinson’s disease are found in literature dating back thousands of years BC.

Age is the single most consistent risk factor and it has been estimated that there is a cumulative lifetime risk of one in 40 for developing Parkinson’s disease.100 Loss of pigmented cells in the substantia nigra is the most consistent finding in Parkinson’s disease and normally the quantity of nigral cells diminishes from 425 000 to 200 000 at 80 yr.

In Parkinson’s disease, the substantia nigra shows marked depletion of cells (‐acetyltranferase 2, in the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease have been inconclusive.5107Parkinson’s disease was first described during the industrial revolution suggesting that environmental toxins may play a role in its pathogenesis.

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The syndrome of (clinical conditions which resemble idiopathic Parkinson’s disease) may have a number of different causes such as arteriosclerosis, diffuse central nervous system degenerative disease, repeated head trauma, tumour, metabolic defects such as Wilson’s disease, heavy metal, or carbon monoxide poisoning.

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